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Psiche, muscoli e respiro

Psiche, muscoli e respiro

La respirazione inizia durante la gravidanza, il feto respira tramite il sangue della madre mentre dopo il parto il respiro viene regolato dal sistema nervoso tramite il comando del cervello, in particolare del midollo allungato.

Parlare, cantare, soffiare, sono atti di respirazione involontaria e lo stesso impulso di automatismo lo ricevono i nervi del corpo e i muscoli in quanto vengono sollecitati dal processo respiratorio in modo immediato ed automatico tramite dei recettori sensibili all’elasticità dei polmoni e dei muscoli stessi nonché alla presenza di anidride carbonica all’interno del sangue. In questo modo l’ossigeno raggiunge tutte le cellule del corpo espellendo con la esalazione l’anidride carbonica che viene accumulata dai tessuti durante il loro processo metabolico.

Con le tecniche dell’Hatha Yoga si impara a gestire la respirazione con la volontà tramite gli impulsi della corteccia cerebrale. Normalmente in una respirazione non controllata, i polmoni si gonfiano sino ad aumentare dalle 16 alle 18 volte al minuto, al contrario in una respirazione controllata l’aumento della capacità polmonare viene raddoppiato o triplicato rallentando anche il battito cardiaco con effetti positivi sul muscolo cardiaco.

Nel processo respiratorio, tra i muscoli involontari il diaframma è il più importante. E’ a forma di cupola e si trova appena sotto i polmoni e il cuore mentre nella parte inferiore ha rapporti anatomici con il fegato, lo stomaco ed il rene sinistro.

Si contrae e si appiattisce mentre si inspira creando un effetto di vuoto che attira l’aria nei polmoni e al contrario quando si espira si rilassa e l’aria viene espulsa dai polmoni.

 

Quando i polmoni si ampliano o si restringono seguendo il flusso inalatorio od esalatorio del respiro, al processo respiratorio partecipano anche gli altri muscoli del busto. Osserviamo nell’immagine che segue quali sono per poi comprendere come vengono influenzati dalla nostra psiche e come lo yoga agisce positivamente su questa influenza in quanto una forte emozione, un sentimento o un pensiero limitano la respirazione diminuendola, comprimendola o rendendola affannosa.

 

 

La respirazione yogica può essere:

  • Clavicolare/alta ed agisce principalmente sui muscoli del collo (scaleno, trapezio, clavicolari)
  • Media/intercostale ed agisce sui muscoli dorsali anteriori e posteriori (sternali, intercostali)
  • Bassa/diaframmatica ed agisce sui muscoli del retto, addome, obliquo, traverso
  • Completa: riunisce tutte e tre le tecniche in una unica agendo su tutti i muscoli inspiratori ed espiratori

La respirazione è attiva durante la inalazione e quindi rende attivi, nella fase di esalazione è passiva e scioglie le tensioni. La ritenzione è una pausa che migliora l’afflusso di sangue al cervello migliorando la capacità di concentrazione e di interiorizzazione.

Già da questa breve spiegazione comprendiamo l’importanza di una corretta respirazione: azione positiva sulla nostra mente, rilassamento muscolare con una migliore acquisizione della capacità respiratoria.

Inoltre, anche le sensazioni che provengono dai Chakra connessi con questa parte del corpo possono influenzare il respiro:

  • il Manipura Chakra è collegato alla zona diaframmatica e le emozioni generate per esempio da insicurezza, rabbia, dolore, pianto, contraggono il diaframma;
  • l’Anahata Chakra è collegato alla zona dello sterno e l’emotività derivante da sentimenti negativi come rifiuto dell’amore, amore egoistico o odio contraggono i muscoli connessi alle zone intercostali;
  • Il Vishuddha Chakra è collegato alla gola-trachea ed essere bloccati nella propria espressività a tutti i livelli irrigidisce i muscoli superiori della

 

Infine, quando i muscoli sono rilassati la postura migliora si cammina eretti e lo sguardo è rivolto in avanti verso la positività, quando sono contratti la postura si incurva e si tende a guardare verso il basso o in altre direzioni.

Concludendo, comprendiamo come tutto è interconnesso e che la respirazione yogica agendo su più livelli incide favorevolmente anche sulla nostra psiche migliorando lo standard della vita quotidiana. Respirare correttamente ci fa stare bene con il nostro corpo e con noi stessi.

Namastè

 

 

Shanta (Claudia Cipriani)

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